Chromatin fibers are coiled and strong to form chromosomes. Chromatin makes it potential for a number of cell processes to occur including DNA replication, transcription, DNA repair, genetic recombination, and cell division.
Structure: It is made of DNA, RNA, histone and non-histone protein. DNA and histone, in it, remain at a rate of 35% and 55%. DNA is wrapped around histones to form a nucleosome, comprised of 147 base pairs of DNA and eight-core histone proteins. DNA that is tightly bound in nucleosomes or compacted into higher-order heterochromatin is inaccessible, preventing the binding of transcription factors, and other DNA-binding proteins, resulting in gene silencing.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules composed of DNA, RNA, and protein, which is found inside the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Chromatin exists in two forms: heterochromatin (condensed) and euchromatin (extended).
(i) It contains DNA. The primary function of chromatin is to compress the DNA into a compact unit that will be less voluminous and can fit within the nucleus. The length of DNA in the nucleus is far larger than the size of the compartment in which it is stored.
(ii) Chromatin is vigorously and dynamically remodeled to modify gene appearance and cellular programming, for example, during dissimilar developmental stages or in response to exacting stimuli.
(ii) Synthesizes protein. If the chromatin gets strengthened and restricts access to the read proteins, there are no transcription occurs. Transcription is a process in which the genetic information stored in DNA is read by proteins.
(iii) It helps in cell division. Euchromatin, an extended type of chromatin, can conduct the process of transcription.
(iv) It’s a container and carrier of heredity. While heterochromatin, the condensed type of chromatin, is packed too tightly for DNA to be read by proteins. Instead, it contains several hierarchies of organization.