If we want to plant a Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) tree we sow a seed of a Jackfruit, because Jackfruit tree originates from Jackfruit seed. in this way we get Jaam (black berry) tree from a Jaam seed, Coconut tree from Coconut, Jute plants from Jute seeds, paddy plant from paddy seed. Again some time we can get new plants from stem cutting also. The process by which a plant gives rise to grow a similar new plant is known as reproduction. Reproduction is one of the most important features of living beings.
Types of Reproduction:
We can grow a new plant from seeds, or some other organ of the plant may give rise to grow a new plant. So the process of reproduction is not of only one type. Different types of reproduction is described below:
- Sexual Reproduction: We have learnt from the chapter fertilization that the union of male and female gametes develop seeds. seeds are the product of sexual union. So the reproduction that takes place by Seeds is sexual reproduction. We get plants like Paddy (Oryza saliva), Wheat (Triticum), Maize, Jaam, Jackfruit etc. from their seeds.
- Asexual Reproduction: Reproduction by any organ other than seed is called asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction may be of two types: (a) by asexual spore and (b) by vegetative organ. Plants like Algae, Fungi, Moss, Fern etc. reproduce by asexual spores.
- Vegetative Reproduction: Reproduction that takes place by vegetative organ is called vegetative reproduction. Vegetative reproduction usually takes place by organs like root, stem or leaf etc. Vegetative reproduction again are of two types: (1) Normal and (2) Artificial.