Functions of Management
Management is described as the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the efforts of organizational members and of using organizational resources to achieve specific goals.
Planning is the function of determining in advance what is to be done and who is to do it. This implies setting goals in advance and developing a way of achieving them efficiently and effectively.
Planning cannot prevent problems, but it can predict them and prepare contingency plans to deal with them if and when they occur.
Organizing is the management function of assigning duties, grouping tasks, establishing authority and allocating resources required to carry out a specific plan. Once a specific plan has been established for the accomplishment of an organizational goal, the organizing function examines the activities and resources required to implement the plan.
Proper organizational techniques help in the accomplishment of work and promote both the efficiency of operations and the effectiveness of results.
Staffing simply stated, is finding the right people for the right job. A very important aspect of management is to make sure that the right people with the right qualifications are available at the right places and times to accomplish the goals of the organization. This is also known as the human resource function and it involves activities such as recruitment, selection, placement and training of personnel.
Directing involves leading, influencing and motivating employees to perform the tasks assigned to them. This requires establishing an atmosphere that encourages employees to do their best. Motivation and leadership are two key components of direction. Motivating workers means simply creating an environment that makes them want to work.
Leadership is influencing others to do what the leader wants them to do. A good manager directs through praise and criticism in such a way that it brings out the best in the employee.
Controlling is the management function of monitoring organizational performance towards the attainment of organizational goals. The task of controlling involves establishing standards of performance, measuring current performance, comparing this with established standards and taking corrective action where any deviation is found.