A Biosphere Reserve is a unique and representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Program. Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to resolve the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. They are globally familiar, selected by national governments and stay under the independent authority of the states where they are located.
The Biosphere Reserve aims at achieving the three objectives-
- Conservation: Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem.
- Development: Association of the environment with development.
- Logistics: an International network for research and monitoring.
There are 14 Biosphere Reserves in India (Table). Protection is decided not only to the flora and fauna of the protected area, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life. Animals are protected and saved here. Four Biosphere Reserves, namely (i) Nilgiri; Iii) Nanda Devi; (iii) Sunderbans; and (iv) Gulf of Mannar have been recognized by the UNESCO on World Network of Biosphere Reserves.