Supermax prisons have grown significantly in popularity over the last 20 years. This article presents an experiment in both the case law and the Criminal Justice Department’s research to assess the current knowledge situation at Supermax Prison and the potential future of these facilities. A maximum-security or administrative maximum (ADX) prison is a “control-unit” prison, or a unit within a prison, which represents the most secure level in the prison system of a particular country. The goal is to provide long-term, isolated accommodation for inmates classified as the highest security risk in the prison system and those who pose the most serious threat to national and global security.
Supermax prisons were built to increase the safety of prison staff, other inmates, and the public. These facilities specialize in the safe control of inmates who engage in violent behavior against other inmates or staff of any other organization or who have difficulty following the rules in a low-security prison. ADX is referred to as Rockies’ Alcatraz and is one of the most dangerous and violent offenders in the federal prison system, with more than 400. Others are transferred from another prison to ADX after being attacked by another prison or prison staff or trying to escape at any opportunity. An early version of the Supermax-style prison unit appeared in Australia in 1975, when “Catling” was built inside Sydney’s Long Bay Correctional Center. Marked as an “electronic zoo” by inmates, Catalan was a top-notch prison block with 40 prisons without electrically operated doors, surveillance cameras, and windows. Since then, some of the top protection gels have also gone into full lockdown, others have been built and dedicated to Supermax standards.
There are some common features involved in Supermax gel activities. Many Supermax prisons are located in rural areas, which often follow prison contracts because they benefit financially by providing prison staff and staff. Supermax accommodation inmates have minimal contact with staff and other inmates,” the definition is confirmed by most prison wardens. The supermax building or housing units are designed to reduce the movement of detainees, increase the capacity of correctional officers to monitor detainees, and isolate them from the negative effects of prisons. Their other types of correctional facilities do not see significant architectural and technological advances, such as the widespread use of closed-circuit television, the provision of remote technology treatment and psychiatric services, and the use of robotic components to feed inmates and operate cell doors. Certain jurisdictions provide entertainment to their inmates in the form of television, educational, and self-help programs. Others provide trainers who talk to inmates through the door of the cell. Exercises are performed indoors or in small, secure, outdoor spaces, usually alone or in pairs, and are always monitored by a guard. Group exercises are only given to those who are in the conversion program. When rehabilitation programming is provided, the service is usually one-on-one and is conducted with the help of bars, separating the prisoner from the service provider.
Critics of Supermax prisons have noted that these facilities are more expensive than inmates in regular maximum-security prisons. Although many critics have argued that prisons represent violations of the prisoner’s rights and constitutional protections against cruel and unjust punishment, advocates of Supermax prisons strongly claim that, regardless of the cost to prisoners or other negative consequences, these prisons enhance prisoner protection and security.