Now, the maximum speed limit for moving through solid and liquid solids has been calculated for the first time. Thanks to Einstein’s special theory of relativity, we know that the speed of light in space is the ultimate speed limit of the universe, but other waves are also expected to have limitations. Of particular interest are sound waves.
A sound wave is a type of vibration that propagates through a medium, whether solid, liquid, or gas. In solids and liquids, the speed of sound is much faster due to the higher density. Their material particles allow the vibrations to spread more quickly together.
As reported in the journal Science Advances, the team estimated that sound waves could propagate at speeds of up to 36 kilometers (22 miles) per second. This is twice the speed of sound in diamonds and twice the speed of sound through the wind. This is about 8,000 times less than the speed of light in space.
Researchers began calculating from the general consideration of how the motion of a word is calculated using the physical properties of a substance. The team realized that they could extend this calculation to create a more ideal case, reaching a formula that depended on three physical constants: the speed of light in space, the ratio between the mass of electrons and the mass of protons, and the fine-structured constant, which is electromagnetic in particles Identify interaction energy. The standard formula shows how much speed can distort your material and how dense it is.
They believe that this theoretical formula can predict the upper limit of the speed of sound since you do not need the properties of the material as a whole it has its imperfections but you are only considering its material particles and how do they interact with it one another.
Co-author Professor Chris Pickard, Professor of Materials Science at the University of Cambridge, said in a statement, “Soundwaves in solids are already very important across many scientific fields. For example, seismologists use them to understand the nature of earthquake events and the features of the earth’s composition.” These are also of interest to physicists because sound waves are related to important elastic properties, including the ability to resist stress.
The limited case is hydrogen, the lightest atom, in its solid form. Unfortunately, hydrogen is not an easy material to harden. The team suspects that this higher limit can be achieved in a real substance when hydrogen is in its rare metallic state due to the incredible pressure at the center of planets like Jupiter.
The team performed a variety of tests on a variety of materials so that their assumptions – that the increasing mass of the molecules of a substance would reduce the maximum speed in a solid sound – were indeed correct.
Lead author Professor Kostya Trachenko, professor of physics at Queen Mary University of London, concluded, “We believe that the results of this study may have more scientific applications to help us explore and understand the range of different properties relevant to high-temperature superconductivity, quark-gluon plasma and even blackhole physics such as viscosity and thermal conductivity.”