Generally endoscopy means looking inside something. But by endoscopy we mean looking interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body for medical reasons using an endoscope machine. We examine the interior side of hollow organs of our body using endoscope machine.


In an endoscope machine, there are two tubes. Through one of them light is transferred to a definite organ of patient’s body from outside. Due to the total internal reflection of light on the inner wall of the optical fiber, bright light enters the body cavity of patient.

This light illuminates the diseased or injured organ. The reflected part of light returns back through the second fiber optic tube in the same way. The reflected light enters the eyes of doctors through the eyepiece lens. As a result, the doctor can see what is happening inside the examined organ. Endoscopy allows doctors to check for any type of irritation, ulcer, inflammation and abnormal tissue growth in the internal organ.

Endoscopy is used to examine a number of different organs, including: (A) the lungs, central partition of the chest; (B) the stomach, small intestine, large intestine or colon; (C) the female reproductive organ; (D) the abdomen and pelvis; (E) the inside of urinary bladder; (F) the nasal cavity and sinuses surrounding the nose; (G) the ears.