Law

### Calvo Doctrine

The Calvo Doctrine, a body of international law that regulates the government’s jurisdiction over foreigners and the scope of their protection by their spouses, as…

Law

The Calvo Doctrine, a body of international law that regulates the government’s jurisdiction over foreigners and the scope of their protection by their spouses, as…

Mathematics

When θi > θc, we have total internal reflection, but there must still be an EM field present on the the other side of the…

Mathematics

The reflectance and transmittance are defined in terms of the rate of energy flow incident on unit area of the interface, Si • (- ei)…

Mathematics

For normal incidence the plane of incidence is undefined and the results we have obtained for the cases of parallel and perpendicular polarisations must therefore…

Mathematics

The amplitude coefficients for the case of internal reflection r┴ , t┴, r‖ and T‖ are plotted in Fig (a) for flint glass to air.…

Mathematics

By definition, for external reflection nt > ni. Hence, √ [(nt / ni)2 – sin2 θi] is real for all θi, and so therefore are…

Mathematics

Amplitude reflection and transmission coefficient for parallel polarization Figure: EM field geometry for parallel (π, p) polarisation. The magnetic field is shown pointing in to…

Mathematics

Amplitude reflection and transmission coefficients for perpendicular polari-sation Figure: EM field geometry for perpendicular (σ, s) polarisation. The electric field is shown pointing out of…

Mathematics

As an electromagnetic wave intersects the interface between two dielectrics, it is the boundary conditions on the electromagnetic field that determine the properties of the…

Mathematics

Consider a monochromatic plane EM wave incident on a plane boundary between two dielectric materials. Part of the wave is transmitted and part is reflected.…

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