Level of Management
Management is a universal term used for certain functions performed by individuals in an enterprise who are bound together in a hierarchy of relationships. Every individual in the hierarchy is responsible for successful completion of a particular task. To be able to fulfill that responsibility he is assigned a certain amount of authority or the right to take a decision. This authority-responsibility relationship binds individuals as superiors and subordinates and gives rise to different levels in an organization.
Generally there are three levels in the hierarchy of an organization.
Top Management: They consist of the senior-most executives of the organization by whatever name they are called. They are usually referred to as the chairman, the chief executive officer, chief operating officer, president and vice-president. Top management is a team consisting of managers from different functional levels. The Job of the top manager is complex and stressful, demanding long hours and commitment to the organization.
(ii) Middle Management: is the link between top and lower level managers. They are subordinate to top managers and superior to the first line managers. They are usually known as division heads, operations manager or plant superintendent. Middle management is responsible for implementing and controlling plans and strategies developed by top management. At the same time they are responsible for all the activities of first line managers. Their main task is to carry out the plans formulated by the top managers.
(iii) Supervisory or Operational Management: Foremen and supervisors comprise the lower level in the hierarchy of the organization. Supervisors directly oversee the efforts of the workforce. Their authority and responsibility is limited according to the plans drawn by the top management. Supervisory management plays a very important role in the organization since they interact with the actual work force and pass on instructions of the middle management to the workers.