Typical Vertebra of Toad

An ideal vertebra is formed of centrum, neural canal, neural arch, neural spine, transverse process, pre-zygapophysis, and post-zygapophysis.

1. Centrum: This solid part is present in the middle of the ventral surface of every vertebra. Its front part is concave and the back part is convex. This type of centrum is called procoelus. Due to this structure, the vertebrae can easily be attached to both in front and at the back.

2. Neural canal: The cavity surrounded by the neural arch is called neural canal. The spinal cord Passes backward through this.

3. Neural arch: The tip two bones generating from the two sides of the dorsal surface of the centrum forms a circular ring. This ring is called the neural arch, which surrounds the spinal cord.


4. Neural spine: Two neural arches joining together form a spine like process. This spine like part is the neural spine, muscles attaching with it gives the body firmness.

5. Transverse process: From the side of every neural arch, a long bone extends transversely. This bone is known as transverse process. Different muscles are attached with the process.

6. Pre-zygapophysis: The up looking spoon like thick fold that comes out from the front of every neural arch is called pre-zygapophysis. It gives the body firmness by attaching itself with the two post-zygapophysis of the vertebra in front.

7. Postzygapophysis: The two down looking spoon like folds that come out from the back of every neural arch are called posti-zygapophyss. They remain attached with the pre-zygapophyses of the posterior vertebra. As a result the attachment of the vertebrae becomes firm.