Explain Law of Multiple Proportions

Law of Multiple Proportions was proposed by Dalton in 1803. According to this law, if two elements can combine to form more than one compound, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers.

For example, hydrogen combines with oxygen to form two compounds, namely, water and hydrogen peroxide.

Hydrogen + Oxygen → Water

2g                    16g                  18g

Hydrogen + Oxygen → Hydrogen Peroxide

2g                    32g                  34g

Here, the masses of oxygen (i.e. 16 g and 32 g) which combine with a fixed mass of hydrogen (2g) bear a simple ratio. i.e. 16:32 or 1: 2.