Pteridophyta is the first vascular plant (which Possesses vascular tissues). The number of species of pteridophyte is about 10,000 species. As a representative of Pteridophyta, the description of Pteris is given below. Pteris is also known as sun fern.


  1. Pteris plant is sporophytic.
  2. Plant body is divided into root stem and leaves.
  3. The stem is Rhizomatous and bears scales.
  4. Leaves are evergreen and pinnately compound. Leaves of fern are known as Frond.
  5. Vemation of young leaf is circinate.
  6. Sporangia (Sing: Sporangium) develop along the margin of the mature leaves. The swollen portion of a sporangium is called the capsule. Spores are borne in the capsule,
  7. The spores germinate and give rise to green heart-shaped gametophytes-called Prothallus. Male and female sex organs develop on Prothallus, and by the union of the male and female gametes a new Pteris plant is born. Pteris are found to grow on old, broken walls and old bricks heap.

Importance of Fern: Many ferns are planted in pots as ornamental plants Some ferns are taken as vegetables and some produce medicines.