Organizational Behavior

McGregor’s theory X and theory Y

Douglas McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mold his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions.

Theory X assumptions are basically negative.

  • Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to Doi avoid it.
  • Since’ employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment.
  • Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible.
  • Most workers place security above all other factors and will display little ambition.

Theory Y assumptions are basically positive.

  • Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.
  • People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives.
  • The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility.
  • The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population.