Douglas McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mold his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions.
Theory X assumptions are basically negative.
- Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to Doi avoid it.
- Since’ employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment.
- Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible.
- Most workers place security above all other factors and will display little ambition.
Theory Y assumptions are basically positive.
- Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.
- People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives.
- The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility.
- The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population.