Atoms and molecules are extremely small in size and their numbers in even a small amount of any substance is really very large. To handle such large numbers, a unit of similar magnitude is required.
Just as we denote one dozen for 12 items, score for 20 items, gross for 144 items, we use the idea of mole to count entities at the microscopic level (i.e. atoms/molecules/ particles, electrons, ions, etc).
In SI system, mole (symbol. mol) was introduced as seventh base quantity for the amount of a substance.
One mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many particles or entities as there are atoms in exactly 12 g (or 0.012 kg) of the 12C isotope.
It may be emphasized that the mole of a substance always contain the same number of entities. no matter what the substance may be. In order to determine this number precisely, the mass of a carbon 12 atom was determined by a mass spectrometer and found to be equal to 1.992648 x 10-23 g. Knowing that one mole of carbon weighs 12 g, the number of atoms in it is equal to:
(12 g/mole) / 1.992648 x 10-23 g
This number of entities in 1 mol is so important that it is given a separate name and symbol, known as ‘Avogadro’ constant, denoted by (NA) in honor of Amedeo Avogadro. To really appreciate largeness of this number, let us write it with all the zeroes without using any powers of ten: 602213670000000000000000
Hence, so many entities (atoms. molecules or any other particle) constitute one mole of a particular substance.
We can, therefore, say that 1 mol of hydrogen atoms = 6.022 x 1023 atoms
1 mol of water molecules = 6.022 x 1023 water molecules.
1 mol of sodium chloride = 6.022 x 1023 formula units of sodium chloride.
Having defined the mole, it is easier to know mass of one mole of the substance or the constituent entities. The mass of one mole of a substance in grams is called its molar mass. The molar mass in grams is numerically equal to atomic/molecular/ formula mass in μ.
Molar mass of water = 18.02 g
Molar mass of sodium chloride = 58.5 g