Discuss the Phylogenetic or Modern Classification

Whittaker proposed a five kingdom classification in 1969 He included all the cellular organisms in five kingdoms. such as-Monera, Protocusta, Plantae, Fungi and Animalisa. Later Margulis (197-1) explained Whittaker’s classification in changed and elaborated form, it is known as Phylogenetic or Modern Classification.

Margulis divided the living world into five kingdoms under two super kingdoms

  • Super kingdom (I) Prokaryota
  • Super kingdom (2) Eukaryota

Super kingdom (1) Prokaryota.


i) They arc unicellular, filamentous, Colonial or mycelial

ii) Cell has nuclear material but has no nucleolus or nuclear membrane

iii) Plastid and mitochondria are absent in their cell

iv) Cell disision is followed by amitosis

v) Their food taking is usually followed by absorption

vi) Reproduction usuaily takes place through binary fission

e g: Escherichia coli


Super kingdom (2) Eukaryota:


I) They are unicellular individuals, unicellular colonial or multicellular and eukaryotic

ii) Nuclear material of the cell is surrounded by nuclear membrane

iii) DNA and RNA are present in the chromatin body

iv) Mitochondria are present in their cells

v) Photosynthetic pigment is usually present in the chloroplast

vi) Food taking is followed by absorption, ingestion or photosynthesis

vii) Embryo is not formed in them

viii) Cell division occurs by mitosis

ix) Sexual reproduction occurs

x) Habitat is usually aquatic