Fermentation: Definition, Characteristics and Usage

Fermentation: Definition, Characteristics and Usage

Fermentation: The process by which glucose is completely oxidized, in absence of oxygen, to form alcohol or lactic acid and a small amount of energy is said to be fermentation. Fermentation occurs in fruits, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, as well as in mammalian muscle. It occurs naturally but humans have used and controlled the procedure. It is used in the making of alcohol, bread, vinegar etc.


  • It occurs outside the cells.
  • It takes place in absence oxygen.
  • In this case, different enzymes formed within the cells secrete out of the cells and take port in the reactions.
  • Glucose is used here externally.


The usage of anaerobic respiration in different industries:

  • Yeast converts sugar to alcohol and CO2 through fermentation
  • Grape juice and apple juice are fermented to form wins and ciders respectively
  • Beer can also be prepared through fermentation
  • Fermentation is occurred by the use of yeast on bread and wine industries