Heat engine is a device which converts heat energy into mechanical energy.
In the year 1824, Carrot devised an ideal cycle of operation for a heat engine. The machine used for realizing this ideal cycle of operation is called an ideal heat engine or carrot heat engine. The essential parts of a Carnot engine are shown in Figure.
It is a hot body which is kept at a constant temperature T1 has infinite thermal capacity. Any amount of heat can be drawn from it at a constant temperature T1 (i.e) its temperature will remain the same even after drawing any amount of heat from it.
It is a cold body which is kept at a constant lower temperature T2. Its thermal capacity is also infinite that any amount of heat added to it will not increase its temperature.
Cylinder is made up of non-conducting walls and conducting bottom. A perfect gas is used as a working substance. The cylinder is fitted with a perfectly non-conducting and frcitionless piston.
(iv) Insulating stand
It is made up of non conducting material so as to perform adiabatic operations.
Working: The Carnot engine has the following four stages of operations.
- Isothermal expansion 2. Adiabatic expansion 3. Isothermal compression 4. Adiabatic compression.