Hind Limb of Toad

Toad uses their hindlimbs to generate propulsive forces during both jumping and swimming.

a. Femur: The first solid bone of hind limb is the femur. The two ends of the femur are swollen and the middle portion is bent. The rounded part of the anterior end remains attached with the acetabulum.

b. Tibia-fibula: The knee bone is called tibia-fibuala. This bone is formed by the fusion of two bones named tibia and fibula. The tibia is situated on the inner side of the body and the fibula is on the outer side. There is a ridge at the junction of the two bones, known as the cnemial crest.


c. Tarsals: The ankle bones of the feet are called tarsal. These bones arranged in two rows. The two bones of the upper row are known as astragalus and calcaneum. The ends of these bones bear cartilages. The space between the two bones is hollow. The two bones of the second row are small and shapeless

d. Metatarsal: The sole of the foot of toad is formed of five narrow stick-like bones. These bones remain attached to the phalanges at the lower portion.

e. Phalanges: In the hind limb of toad there are five fingers. There are two phalanges in the first and second fingers, three in the third and fifth fingers and four in the fourth finger. Besides, towards the inner side of the hind limb, there is a bony extension named calcar.