State the characteristics of wave motion

The wave motion has the following characteristics:

  • The wave motion is periodic vibration which travels through any medium or vacuum.
  • During wave motion, the molecules of the medium do not move with the wave but vibrates or oscillates about their mean positions of rest and transfer energy from one molecule to another.
  • There is a periodic phase change between the particles of the medium. A particle of the medium begins to vibrate after a little later than its preceding one.
  • The wave travels through the medium with different velocities from that of particles.
  • The wave moves through the medium with a constant velocity.
  • The velocity of vibrating particles different at different points. The velocity is maximum at the mean position, but least at maximum displacement from the equilibrium position.