Discuss the economic importance of Saccharomyces (Yeast):
(i) Preparation of alcohol: Alcohol is prepared from sugar by fermentation with the help of Yeast. It takes part in the alcoholic fermentation of sugar molasses to alcohol and carbon dioxide. Alcohol is formed from a sugar solution by fermentation action of yeast.
(ii) Preparation of beer: Yeast is used in preparing beer. Yeast is used to prepare wine from grape juice and cedars from apples.
(iii) Production of wine: Wine is also a form of alcohol formed by the commotion of wild species of yeast. These yeasts confusion the fruits.
(iii) In bread factories: Yeast is used in preparing bread. They are used in baking industries to make bread. Flour is mixed with Yeast and allowed to ferment, CO2 and alcohol are produced Here CO2 is released to atmosphere and alcohol takes part in bread formation. CO2 formed during fermentation procedure of sugar by yeasts is significantly used in backing industries.
(iv) As protein: About 37% of proteins are present in the biomass of Yeast. Yeast was cultured during the Second World War to meet up the protein demand. They are used in the synthesis of protein, fat, vitamins and enzymes. In brewing production, surplus yeasts are harvested and pressed into yeast cakes or tablets which are a prosperous resource of proteins and vitamins (B1, B2, and C).
(v) As food: As Yeast cell contains different types of vitamins (B, C) and proteins, it is used as a nutritious food. Along with bacteria, the yeast gives characteristic flavor in coca beans. The CO2 evaporates and makes the bread spongy. Yeast cells are rich in B group vitamins and enzymes, therefore, their food imports are high. Yeast Vite tablet is used as food value.
(vi) As medicine: Used to treat skin disease. Some yeast cells are used in the treatment of skin diseases. Some yeasts are used in the treatment of intestinal diseases. They are also used in the preparation of vitamins.
(i) Spoiling food: Tomato sauce, cheese etc can be spoilt by Yeast attack. Yeast spoils food, vegetables, cheeses, beverages, food with lactic acid, and fruits.
(ii) Causing disease: Skin diseases including other diseases arc caused by Yeast. They cause many plant and animal diseases. They are responsible for serious human diseases like cryptococcosis, torulose, histoplasmosis, candidiasis, Moniliases, etc. Plant diseases, like, Nematospora attack beans, tomato, and cotton and reduce their yield.