Temperature of Cold Weather Season in Indian Subcontinent
Usually, the cold weather season sets in by mid-November in northern India. December and January are the coldest months in the northern plain. The mean daily temperature remains below 21°C over most parts of northern India. The night temperature may be quite low, sometimes going below freezing point in Punjab and Rajasthan. The cold weather season in India begins during mid-November in Northern India and stays until February. December and January are the coldest months. During the cold season, the days are warm and nights are cold. There are three main reasons for the excessive cold in north India during this season:
(i) States like Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan being far away from the moderating influence of sea experience a continental climate.
(ii) The snowfall in the nearby Himalayan ranges creates cold wave situation; and
(iii) Around February, the cold winds coming from the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan bring cold wave along with frost and fog over the northwestern parts of India.
The Peninsular region of India, however, does not have any well-defined cold weather season. There is hardly any seasonal change in the distribution pattern of the temperature in coastal areas because of moderating influence of the sea and the proximity to the equator. For example, the mean maximum temperature for January at Thiruvananthapuram is as high as 31°C and for June it is 29.5°C. Temperatures at the hills of Western Ghats remain comparatively low.