The topographic factor of a particular region influences the animals and plants living there. Weather, soil factor and topographic factor are the inorganic components of eco-system. The main source of energy is the sun. The green plants with the help of chloroplast invert the solar energy into organic component and stores it in the body. indirectly this solar energy is flowing within the living community. Thus the life process and energy flow on this earth are maintained. Three common Topographic Factor in Ecology are:
a) Soil composition: The relative amount of sand, clay and silt etc, determines the quality of the soil. The quality of the soil has a special influence over the animals and plants of that particular area.
b) Humus and Mineral salt: The rotten manure, produced from the dead plants and animals is the hummus. In humus, there is a large amount of mineral salt. Plants absorb this mineral salt with the help of their root hair.
c) Soil water condition: The life of animals and plants also depend on the quantity of the water, the level of underground water, drainage of excess water and also on the porosity of the soil.