Calcium phosphate refers to a group of materials and minerals that contain calcium ions (Ca2+) as well as inorganic phosphate anions. Some calcium phosphates also contain oxide and hydroxide. It is a calcium and phosphorus-containing compound. It is a naturally occurring mineral that is found in large quantities in bones and teeth. The compound performs numerous functions in the body, and some people may benefit from supplementation. However, too much calcium phosphate can be harmful to one’s health.
Calcium phosphate is a family of compounds containing calcium ions (Ca2+) and phosphate ions (PO43-). These compounds are important in many biological and industrial processes. In the human body, calcium phosphate is a major component of bone and teeth, providing the necessary strength and rigidity to these structures. It also plays a role in cellular signaling and energy metabolism.
Calcium phosphates are white solids with nutritive value that are found in a variety of living organisms, including bone mineral and tooth enamel. In milk, it exists colloidally in micelles bound to casein protein, along with magnesium, zinc, and citrate, and is known as colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP).
Phosphoric acid and fertilizers are manufactured using a variety of calcium phosphate minerals. Overuse of certain forms of calcium phosphate can result in nutrient-rich surface runoff and subsequent negative effects on receiving waters such as algal blooms and eutrophication (nutrient and mineral enrichment).
Calcium phosphate is also commonly used in the food industry as a food additive and in the production of fertilizers, animal feed, and pharmaceuticals. Some common forms of calcium phosphate include hydroxyapatite, brushite, and tricalcium phosphate. These compounds differ in their chemical composition and physical properties, and are used in different applications depending on their specific characteristics.
When toxic doses are consumed in excess of 2 g/kg, unusual skin sensitization occurs. Chemical pneumonitis may result from inhaling it. Calcium phosphate is used in a variety of biomedical products, as well as dentistry and cosmetics. It is found in nanoparticle form in some situations, either on purpose or as a result of degradation or mechanical abrasion. The biological impact of these nanoparticles is one of the potential issues.
According to a thorough literature review, calcium phosphate nanoparticles do not have inherent toxicity, but they may cause an increase in intracellular calcium concentration after endosomal uptake and lysosomal degradation. Unless very high doses of calcium phosphate are used, cells can remove calcium from the cytoplasm within a few hours.